Ken Wetzel, an RF engineer, posted within our FMtuners group about the results of antenna amplifiers on RF intermod: "The Section of the tuner most liable to 'overload', or perhaps the development of IM spurious alerts, is definitely the mixer. The greater acquire that precedes the mixer, the more IM the mixer will develop. The IM produced within the input RF amplifier with the tuner is mostly insignificant in comparison to what's designed inside the mixer. Overload within the IF amplifier of the FM tuner won't be noticeable except with laboratory instrumentation. RF engineers use the 'third buy intercept issue' (IP3) like a determine of advantage of an RF element's susceptibility to creation of IM. The higher the IP3 selection, the greater. I've measured the IP3 of some tuners and found a wide variation. A Technics ST-9030 experienced an IP3 of +six dBm, when a Kenwood KT-7500 experienced an IP3 of -21 dBm, with other great tuners falling between Individuals two. People values are for undesired signals 400 kHz apart (alternate channel spacing). For signals which has a spacing of 1 MHz or even more, the IP3 functionality increases substantially.
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Filters: All tuners use IF (intermediate frequency) bandpass filters nominally at 10.seven MHz. Within the nineteen seventies on, a number of two-stage ceramic filters have been utilized to attempt to do away with alternate channel interference and limit adjacent channel interference. "Filter mods" are modifications that entail (among other items) changing the tuner's initial ceramic filters with narrower bandwidth filters to improve selectivity, plus some information on This web site is intended to assist and encourage individuals who want to do so. Inside our opinions, we generally include things like the volume of ceramic filters for which the tuner has slots in its circuit board, when identified. A tuner with 3 or maybe more filters can nearly always be designed far more selective using a filter mod, and by far the most selective tuners use four, 5 or more filters.
When deciding upon a buy tuner modifications, repairs, or maybe merely a tuneup, ask what kind of check gear they use to accomplish the ultimate RF checkout and alignment.
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The best info we have seen on all aspects of antennas are available on Jeremy Lansman's website. It really is an complete ought to read through. The Carver TX-11b's proprietor's guide has an exceedingly good segment on antennas.
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Essentially the most troublesome mixing goods are because of quite potent stations which are near to each other in frequency, and also near a wanted weaker station. It is because RF gangs are commonly two-3 MHz broad, and most tuners have only one gang before the first RF amp (Despite the fact that greater tuners have two gangs before the RF amp). Once the gangs are unable to attenuate unwanted solid alerts, the flexibility in the RF amp and mixer to face up to RFIM is analyzed. One example is, subtracting 93.3 from the second harmonic of 94.one would produce a mixing product or service at ninety four.nine, and you can find other alternatives like f1 + f2 - f3. These stations are all so near in frequency that 1 gang of the entrance stop will do little to attenuate them. In cases such as this, employing a directional external antenna is The ultimate way to prevent the unwelcome stations from overloading the entrance finish.